In Evolutionary Anthropology we call this the "thrifty gene." It's a huge debate and it's not *actually* a gene, but the idea is that these are great adaptations IF you are basically a hunter-gatherer or agriculturalist who faces frequent food shortage. This adaptation will keep you alive. The MASSIVE downside is the way it keeps you alive is by altering how your endocrine and immunological systems work which often leads to things like Type II Diabetes, hypertension, cardiac disease, immune disorders, and even cancer.
I'm simplifying, but can confirm, this is a thing.